The distinctive features of the Republic of Crimea are the coastal position of the region, fertile soils, warm climate, as well as natural and recreational resources. On the basis of which the economy of the Peninsula was formed. Due to the existing factors, the basic industries of the region are food industry, production of construction materials, mechanical engineering, agriculture, as well as the resort sector.
At the regional level, the overall indicator that characterizes the level of economic development is the gross regional product.
The volume of the gross regional product of the Republic of Crimea for 2017 is estimated at 359.1 billion rubles. The Republic of Crimea ranks 8th among the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of GRP growth (in 2017, the growth was 4%).
Dynamics of the GRP index of the Republic of Crimea
According to preliminary data from the Ministry of Economic Development of the Republic of Crimea, the volume of the gross regional product of the Republic of Crimea for 2018 is estimated at 414.8 billion rubles. The index of the physical volume of the GRP of the Republic of Crimea at the end of 2018 will tentatively amount to 110.0% compared to the previous year.
The volume of GRP per capita in 2017 amounted 187,7 thousand rubles, which is 2.9 times lower than in average in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation over the same period (472,2 thousand RUB) and exceeds the indicators of the Russian Federation subjects: the Republic of Tyva (164,7 thousand RUB), Karachay-Cherkess Republic (156,6 thousand RUB), Kabardino-Balkar Republic (153,7 thousand RUB), Sevastopol (151,9 thousand RUB), Chechen Republic (118.7 thousand RUB), the Republic of Ingushetia (106,8 thousand RUB).
Structure of the GRP of the Republic of Crimea by type of economic activity
The economy of the Republic of Crimea is quite diversified, with industry, agriculture and services widely represented. In the sphere of material production (industry, agriculture, construction), 29.3% of the total number of employees are involved and they account for 37% of the GRP.
The service sector, closely related to tourism, is noticeably developed in the Republic of Crimea. The contribution of trade and restaurant and hotel business to the GRP is 19%, while the number of employed is 21.7%.
The industrial complex of the Republic of Crimea is the leading sector of the region's economy, with a share of 18.2% in the gross regional product. The industry is based on the food and chemical industries, mechanical engineering, including shipbuilding, as well as providing electricity, gas, steam; air conditioning and water supply; water disposal, waste collection and disposal, and pollution elimination activities.
In the industrial production of the Republic of Crimea, there are more than 5,465 large, medium and small enterprises (including individual entrepreneurs operating in the industrial sphere), which employ about 106 thousand people.
Territorial distribution of industrial potential in the Republic is uneven, which is mainly due to differences in resource availability. Industrial enterprises of Crimea are concentrated in Simferopol, Armyansk, Krasnoperekopsk, Kerch, Feodosia, Evpatoria, as well as in the Bakhchisaray and Krasnogvardeysky districts.
The main industries of the Republic of Crimea are:
mining operations – 8,5%;
food production – 13,2%;
manufacture of beverages – 11,1%;
production of chemicals and chemical products – 13,9%;
production of rubber and plastic products – 1,0%;
production of other non-metallic mineral products – 8,2%;
production of finished metal products, except machinery and equipment – 1,7%;
production of electrical equipment – 1,0%;
production of machinery and equipment not included in other groups – 3,9%;
production of other vehicles and equipment – 2,9%;
repair and installation of machinery and equipment – 1,3%;
provision of electricity, gas and steam; air conditioning – 26,1%;
water supply, sanitation, waste collection and disposal, pollution elimination activities – 4,4%.
Territorial distribution of industrial potential of the Republic of Crimea
The leading industrial enterprises of the Crimea
Agriculture of the Republic of Crimea plays a significant role in shaping the region's economy, accounting for 10.6% of the gross regional product. The strategic focus of the development of the agricultural sector is the creation of a powerful raw material base for the formation of a food complex that can not only meet the needs of the population and recreants in the main types of food, but also increase the export potential of traditional Crimean industries: viticulture and winemaking, gardening, vegetable growing.
1,513 organizations and 3,271 peasant farms and individual entrepreneurs operate are in the agricultural sector of the Republic.
The climate conditions of Crimea allow growing most of the temperate zone crops and some subtropical crops on its territory.
The total area of agricultural land in the Republic of Crimea is 1.8 million hectares, including 1.2 million hectares of arable land.
Gardening industry in the Republic is represented by the cultivation of seeds (apples, pears) and stones (plums, peaches, apricots, cherries) crops. The climate of the region is favorable for the cultivation of essential oil crops (coriander, rose, lavender, sage), as well as raw materials for the production of biofuels (rapeseed). The Republic is known for its technical grape varieties used for the production of high-quality wines, cognacs and juices. On average, about 80 thousand tons of grapes are produced per year and 9.5 million dal of wine materials are produced. There are 26 enterprises in the wine industry of the region.
Production and agricultural Association «Massandra» FUE, «Plant of Сhampagne wines «Novy Svet» JSC, «Solnechnaya dolina» («Sunny Valley») JSC, Wine house «Fotisal» LLC, Factory of vintage wines «Koktebel» LLC has long won its consumer outside the Peninsula. Wines are delivered to the People's Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Belarus, etc. Companies confirm the level of production, awards won at professional folk wine competitions.
Animal husbandry is represented by such sub-sectors as poultry, sheep, pig, dairy and meat cattle breeding.
The largest enterprises in the region:
- meat production and processing (Meat processing plant –«Skvortsovo» LLC, Meat processing plant – «Druzhba Narodov» LLC);
- production and processing of milk («Novator» LLC, «Krimsky molochnik» LLC, «Daughter company «Megatrade-Ug» LLC, «YUG MOLOKO» TM «Dolina legend» LLC).
Republic of Crimea on the agricultural map of the Russia Federation
Grape harvest collection
Fruit and berry collection
The production of meat and poultry
In the total volume of Gross regional product, the construction sector accounts for 3.0%, and the industry employs 1.6% of the total economically active population of the Republic.
The development of the construction industry in the Republic of Crimea is primarily aimed at improving the provision of earthquake-resistant housing to the population, forming long-term plans for urban development of territories, creating safe conditions for the population to live and accident-free operation of urban development facilities that are affected by seismic, landslide and abrasion processes, preventing economic and environmental consequences of natural disasters, and implementing financial and investment mechanisms to support the construction of affordable housing.
The territory of the Republic is characterized by significant reserves of building mineral raw materials: construction stone, facing stone, saw stone, cement raw materials, marl, gypsum and anhydrite, sand, expanded clay and glass raw materials. The raw material base of the region allows increasing the capacity for the production of cement, wall materials, reinforced concrete structures and products, crushed stone, sand.
The construction complex of the Republic of Crimea is represented by organizations that perform General construction work on the construction of buildings , bridges, highways, tunnels, main and local pipelines, communication and power lines, installation, electrical and finishing works, as well as organizations that produce construction materials and structures.
The largest construction companies of the Republic of Crimea:
The strategic goal of the development of the Republic of Crimea is to create a modern international tourist center that will meet three main criteria: year-round availability, demand and competitiveness.
There are 13 resort regions in Crimea: 7 urban districts (Alushta, Evpatoria, Kerch, Saki, Sudak, Feodosia, Yalta), as well as 6 municipal districts (Bakhchisarai, Leninsky, Razdolnensky, Saki, Simferopol and Chernomorsky. The most popular among tourists are resorts of Yalta, Evpatoria, Alushta, Sudak and Feodosia, they account for 80-85% of all tourists visiting the Crimea.
On the territory of the Republic of Crimea, there are 898 collective accommodation facilities ( health resorts and hotels) with a total capacity of 158.2 thousand places, of which 357 facilities provide treatment and wellness services. 139 health resorts and 162 hotels are designed for year-round operation.
At the same time, the southern coast of Crimea specializes in the treatment of adults, Evpatoria is a children's resort. There are 105 children's health facilities on the territory of the Republic, including 77 children's recreation camps, 27 children's health resorts and 1 educational health center. The Federal state budgetary educational institution «Artek» international children's center is located on the territory of the Republic.
The resort resources of Crimea, along with favorable climatic conditions and therapeutic mud, include more than 34 salt lakes, 6 deposits of therapeutic mud and more than 100 mineral springs.
The tourism and resource potential of the Crimea includes more than 3000 objects of natural and anthropogenic nature.
The most perspective types of tourism in Crimea
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