The distinctive features of the Republic of Crimea, on the basis of which the economy of the peninsula has been formed: the coastal position of the region, fertile soils, warm climate, as well as natural and recreational resources. Due to the prevailing factors, the basic industries of the region: food industry, production of building materials, mechanical engineering, agriculture, as well as the resort sector.
At the regional level, the overall indicator that characterizes the level of economic development is the gross regional product.
The volume of the gross regional product of the Republic of Crimea for 2020 is estimated at 515.6 billion rubles. The Republic of Crimea ranks 20th among the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of GRP growth (in 2020, the growth was 100.8%). The volume of GRP per capita in 2020 amounted to 270.4 thousand rubles.
Dynamics of the GRP index of the Republic of Crimea
According to preliminary data from the Ministry of Economic Development of the Republic of Crimea, the volume of the gross regional product of the Republic of Crimea for 2021 is estimated at over 600 billion rubles. The volume index of GRP of the Republic of Crimea at the end of 2021 will preliminarily amount to 106.4% compared to the previous year.
Structure of the GRP of the Republic of Crimea by type of economic activity
The industrial complex of the Republic of Crimea is the leading sector of the region's economy, with a share of 15.6% in the gross regional product. The industry is based on the food and chemical industries, mechanical engineering, including shipbuilding, as well as providing electricity, gas, steam; air conditioning and water supply; water disposal, waste collection and disposal, and pollution elimination activities.
In the industrial production of the Republic of Crimea, there are more than 5,465 large, medium and small enterprises (including individual entrepreneurs operating in the industrial sphere), which employ about 106 thousand people.
Territorial distribution of industrial potential in the Republic is uneven, which is mainly due to differences in resource availability. Industrial enterprises of Crimea are concentrated in Simferopol, Armyansk, Krasnoperekopsk, Kerch, Feodosia, Evpatoria, as well as in the Bakhchisaray and Krasnogvardeysky districts.
The main industries of the Republic of Crimea are:
mining operations – 5.6%;
food production – 14.7%;
manufacture of beverages – 9.6%;
production of chemicals and chemical products –11%;
production of rubber and plastic products – 1%;
production of other non-metallic mineral products – 6.8%;
production of finished metal products, except machinery and equipment – 1.4%;
production of electrical equipment – 1.3%;
production of machinery and equipment not included in other groups – 3.2%;
production of other vehicles and equipment – 2.9%;
repair and installation of machinery and equipment – 1.5%;
provision of electricity, gas and steam; air conditioning – 34.3%;
water supply, sanitation, waste collection and disposal, pollution elimination activities – 4.8%.
Territorial distribution of industrial potential of the Republic of Crimea
The leading industrial enterprises of the Crimea
Agriculture of the Republic of Crimea plays a significant role in shaping the region's economy, accounting for 5.9% of the gross regional product. The strategic focus of the development of the agricultural sector is the creation of a powerful raw material base for the formation of a food complex that can not only meet the needs of the population and recreants in the main types of food, but also increase the export potential of traditional Crimean industries: viticulture and winemaking, gardening, vegetable growing.
1,513 organizations and 3,271 peasant farms and individual entrepreneurs operate are in the agricultural sector of the Republic.
The climate conditions of Crimea allow growing most of the temperate zone crops and some subtropical crops on its territory.
The total area of agricultural land in the Republic of Crimea is 1.78 million hectares, including 1.2 million hectares of arable land.
Gardening industry in the Republic is represented by the cultivation of seeds (apples, pears) and stones (plums, peaches, apricots, cherries) crops. The climate of the region is favorable for the cultivation of essential oil crops (coriander, rose, lavender, sage), as well as raw materials for the production of biofuels (rapeseed). The Republic is known for its technical grape varieties used for the production of high-quality wines, cognacs and juices. On average, about 123.5 thousand tons of grapes are produced per year and 6.6 million dal of wine materials are produced. There are 26 enterprises in the wine industry of the region.
Production and agricultural Association «Massandra» FUE, «Plant of Сhampagne wines «Novy Svet» JSC, «Solnechnaya dolina» («Sunny Valley») JSC, Wine house «Fotisal» LLC, Factory of vintage wines «Koktebel» LLC has long won its consumer outside the Peninsula. Wines are delivered to the People's Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Belarus, etc. Companies confirm the level of production, awards won at professional folk wine competitions.
Animal husbandry is represented by such sub-sectors as poultry, sheep, pig, dairy and meat cattle breeding.
The largest enterprises in the region:
- meat production and processing (Meat processing plant –«Skvortsovo» LLC, Meat processing plant – «Druzhba Narodov» LLC);
- production and processing of milk («Novator» LLC, «Krimsky molochnik» LLC, «Daughter company «Megatrade-Ug» LLC, «YUG MOLOKO» TM «Dolina legend» LLC).
Republic of Crimea on the agricultural map of the Russia Federation
Grape harvest collection
Fruit and berry collection
The production of meat and poultry
In the total volume of Gross regional product, the construction sector accounts for 14.4%, and the industry employs 1.9% of the total economically active population of the Republic.
The development of the construction industry in the Republic of Crimea is primarily aimed at improving the provision of earthquake-resistant housing for the population, forming long-term plans for urban development of territories, creating safe conditions for the population and trouble-free operation of urban development facilities exposed to seismic, landslide and abrasion processes, preventing the economic and environmental consequences of natural disasters, introducing financial and investment mechanisms for state support for the construction of affordable housing.
The territory of the Republic is characterized by significant reserves of building mineral raw materials: construction stone, facing stone, saw stone, cement raw materials, marl, gypsum and anhydrite, sand, expanded clay and glass raw materials. The raw material base of the region allows increasing the capacity for the production of cement, wall materials, reinforced concrete structures and products, crushed stone, sand.
The construction complex of the Republic of Crimea is represented by organizations that perform General construction work on the construction of buildings , bridges, highways, tunnels, main and local pipelines, communication and power lines, installation, electrical and finishing works, as well as organizations that produce construction materials and structures.
The largest construction companies of the Republic of Crimea:
The strategic goal of the development of the Republic of Crimea is to create a modern international tourist center that will meet three main criteria: year-round availability, demand and competitiveness.
There are 13 resort regions in Crimea: 7 urban districts (Alushta, Evpatoria, Kerch, Saki, Sudak, Feodosia, Yalta), as well as 6 municipal districts (Bakhchisarai, Leninsky, Razdolnensky, Saki, Simferopol and Chernomorsky. The most popular among tourists are resorts of Yalta, Evpatoria, Alushta, Sudak and Feodosia, they account for 80-85% of all tourists visiting the Crimea.
On the territory of the Republic of Crimea, there are 1,098 collective accommodation facilities (health resorts and hotels) with a total capacity of 160 thousand places, of which 275 facilities provide treatment and wellness services. 65 health resorts and 162 hotels are designed for year-round operation.
At the same time, the Southern coast of Crimea specializes in the treatment of adult population, the city of Yevpatoria is a children's resort. There are 1055 children's health camps on the territory of the Republic, including 77 children's recreation camps, 27 children's sanatoriums and 1 educational health center. The Federal state budget educational institution international Child Center «Artek» is located on the territory of the Republic.
The resort resources of Crimea, along with favorable climatic conditions and therapeutic mud, include more than 40 salt lakes, 5 deposits of therapeutic mud and more than 100 mineral springs.
The tourism and resource potential of the Crimea includes more than 3000 objects of natural and anthropogenic nature.
The most perspective types of tourism in Crimea
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